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How to make Ethernet cable ?

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What is the different Ethernet cable structures?

Cable Category
CAT5 UTP CAT5e UTP CAT5e SFTP CAT6 UTP CAT6 SFTP CAT6a FFTP CAT7a FFTP
Cable picture
cat5 utp cat5e utp cat5e sftp cat6 utp cat6 sftp cat 6a fftp cat 7a fftp
conductor material Solid BC/CCA Solid BC/CCA Solid BC/CCA Solid BC/CCA Solid BC/CCA Solid/Strand BC Solid BC
size 24AWG x 4P 24AWG x 4P 24AWG x 4P 23AWG x 4P

23AWGX4P      

23AWG x 4P 23AWG x 4P
constructure 1/0.49mm 1/0.49mm 1/0.51mm 1/0.57mm 1/0.57mm 1/0.575mm 1/0.575mm
insulation material HDPE HDPE HDPE HDPE PE SFS PE SFS PE
Min.thickness 0.188 mm 0.188 mm 0.250 mm 0.200 mm 0.20 mm 0.350 mm 0.350 mm
Avg.thickness 0.205 mm 0.205 mm 0.265 mm 0.220 mm 0.20 mm 0.360 mm 0.360 mm
diameter 0.9+/-0.01mm 0.9+/-0.01mm 1.05+/-0.01mm 1.03+/-0.01mm 1.02+/-0.01 mm 1.33+/-0.05mm 1.35+/-0.10mm
color blue-white/blue,orange-white/orange,green-white/green,brown-white/brown

wrap/screen // // PE tape // PE tape every pair screen Alu Foil every pair screen Alu Foil
drain wire // // TC 1/0.4mm // TC 1/0.4mm TC 1/0.4mm TC 1/0.4mm
shield/overall screen // // Alu foil // Alu foil+ braid Alu foil Alu foil+ braid
separator material // // Nylon or // Nylon Nylon // //
sheath material PVC PVC/PE/LSZH PVC/PE/LSZH PVC/PE/LSZH PVC/PE/LSZH PVC/LSZH LSZH
Min.thickness 0.50 mm 0.54 mm 0.55mm 0.54mm 0.65 mm 0.65mm 0.65mm
Avg.thickness 0.55 mm 0.60 mm 0.60mm 0.60mm 0.80mm 0.80mm 0.80mm
diameter 5.0+/-0.1mm 5.1+/-0.1mm 6.0+/-0.4mm 6.20+/-0.4mm 6.85+/-0.25mm 7.20+/-0.20mm 7.50+/-0.20mm
rip cord // Nylon Nylon Nylon Nylon Nylon Nylon
color per request per request per request per request per request per request Ice blue


Ethernet cable manufacturing process:

Condutor bunching(stranded) → Conductor insulating → Pair twist with back twist →4P laying up+screening → braiding shielding(ftp/sftp) → cable jacket extruding.


Equipment required to produce Ethernet cable:

TZ-BM300 double twist bunching machine → for conductors if using stranded 7 x 0.145 mm(0.12 mm2 /26AWG)

TZ-EP50+35 extruder line→for conductor insulating using HDPE/PE of 4 colours (as required with stripes).

TZ-ET35+60+40 physical foaming extrusion line→  for conductor insulating using skin-foam(SF)/skin-foam-skin(SFS) technology

TZ-PT500 pair twist+back twist machine→ for each single pair twisting with back twisting purpose 

TZ-SC800 cantilever single twisting machine → for 4 pairs cabling along with universal Alu foil screening or single pair Alu foil screening or both+ripcord/separator filling.

16 carriers braiding machine → for inner shielding of tinned copper/Mg-Al wire with Alu foil screening

TZ-EP70(+50)  extruder line→for outer jacket sheathing of PVC (or dual layer jacketing of PVC+LSZH)

TZ-CE400 Ethernet cable cross figure coiling machine→for finished ethernet cable coiling 1000 feet/reel (can be online with jacketinig line)


Tips for making Ethernet cable:

1. Insulation:

concentricity need around 95%-97%, use different core wire diameter to reduce crosstalk between the two wires.

2. Pair twisting:

(1) back twist can reduce the eccentricity influence of resistant; theoretically speaking higher back twist ratio with better performance.

(2) Pair twist pitch influence the Near-End Crosstalk and attenuation; in the pair twisting process, the two wire keep same stable and equal tension as much as possible.

3. four pairs cabling:

Cabling pitch influence the stability of the cable inner structure, the cabling pitch is around 100mm, the pitch need to keep stable, 4 pairs wires tension equal, use big size guiding pulleys to decrease bending, keep the cable inner structure stable and tight.

4. Jacket extruding:

The cable jacket need to keep smooth, round. The cover of the jacket can't be too big or small, it should not make the cable loose or stress the cable inner structure.


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